A mixed-methods study on the impact of participation in music-making workshops on youth self-esteem and self-efficacy
Sophia Miao and Dr. Wendy Stewart
Literature on the therapeutic outcomes of youth engagement in active music-based interventions is limited. This study explores how music workshops empower youth; particularly, how their self-esteem and self-efficacy are impacted by the experience of lyrical and musical composition. A convergent mixed-methods approach was used to investigate the experiences of male and female youth (n = 11) aged 12-16 in music workshops run at the Kennebecasis Valley Oasis Youth Centre in New Brunswick. Both 1-hour focus groups and The Rosenberg Self-esteem and General Self-Efficacy Scales (administered as quantitative tools and scored on a Likert-type scale) took place preceding and following the workshops. Qualitative data was analyzed using phenomenology. Qualitative and quantitative results were compared and integrated for interpretation. Quantitative methods revealed improvements in self-esteem, general self-efficacy, and social self-efficacy from baseline (1.55, 2.09, 0.55 respectively), but this effect was not statistically significant (respective p = 0.11, 0.24, 0.48). Phenomenological analysis substantiated this development in self-concept, revealing two overarching clusters of ten themes as contributing factors. The first consisted of internal factors: current state, mood and emotional regulation, agency, experience and mastery. The second encompassed external factors, such as interpersonal relationships, context, perception of others, modelled behavior, and culture. The dynamic interplay between internal and external contributors was dependent on the worth that the individual assigns to each. Youth participation in a music-making workshop had a positive impact on self-efficacy and self-esteem. This study can serve to further the development of music-based interventions for adolescent wellbeing and self-concept.